Researchers from CHOSE (Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy) – University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Fraunhofer ISE and ISM-CNR have developed a full semiautomatic scalable process based on the blade-coating technique, to fabricate perovskite solar modules in ambient conditions.

An efficient and stable triple-cation cesium methylammonium formamidinium (CsMAFA) perovskite is deposited in ambient air with a two-step blading process, for the first time, by air and green anti-solvent quenching. The developed industry-compatible coating process enables the fabrication of several highly reproducible small-area cells on module size substrate with an efficiency exceeding 17% and with high reproducibility.

Corresponding reproducible modules (less than 2% variability) with a 90% geometrical fill factor achieve an efficiency larger than 16% and T 80 = 750 h in light-soaking condition at maximum power point and room temperature/ambient after encapsulation.

Film deposition properties are assessed by different characterization techniques, namely, scanning electron microscopy, profilometry, UV–vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and PL and electroluminescence imaging. The techniques confirm less defects and local coating variations of the ambient air/bladed devices with respect to the nitrogen air/spinned devices.