Perovskites are materials that share a crystal structure similar to the mineral called perovskite, which consists of calcium titanium oxide (CaTiO3).
Depending on which atoms/molecules are used in the structure, perovskites can possess an impressive array of interesting properties including superconductivity, ferroelectricity, charge ordering, spin dependent transport and much more. Perovskites therefore hold exciting opportunities for physicists, chemists and material scientists.
Quantum dots (QDs), sometimes referred to as semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs), are miniscule particles of a semiconducting material with diameters in the range of 2-10 nanometers (10-50 atoms). Quantum dots have properties labeled as intermediate between bulk semiconductors and discrete atoms or molecules. Their optoelectronic properties change as a function of both size and shape. QDs demonstrate optical and electronic properties different from those of larger particles. In fact, QDs tend to exhibit quantum size effects in their optical and electronic properties, like tunable and efficient photoluminescence (PL), with narrow emission and photochemical stability. This is why QDs have been incorporated as active elements in a wide variety of devices and applications, some of which are already commercially available, such as QD-based displays.
Perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) are a class of quantum dots based on perovskite materials. While these are relatively new, they have already been shown to have properties matching or surpassing those of the metal chalcogenide QDs: they are more tolerant to defects and have excellent photoluminescence quantum yields and high colour purity. Such attractive properties are extremely suited for electronic and optoelectronic applications and so perovskite quantum dots have significant potential for real world applications, some of which are already emerging, including LED displays and quantum dot solar cells.
The latest Perovskite QD news:
Researchers at McGill University have gained new insight into the inner workings of perovskites, especially their ability to function even despite the existence of defects in the materials' crystal structure.
"Historically, people have been using bulk semiconductors that are perfect crystals. And now, all of a sudden, this imperfect, soft crystal starts to work for semiconductor applications, from photovoltaics to LEDs," explains senior author Patanjali Kambhampati, an associate professor in the Department of Chemistry at McGill. "That's the starting point for our research: how can something that's defective work in a perfect way?"
Perovskite quantum dots have great potential as quantum emitters, but their inherent instability has thus far hampered their acceptance. Professor Hao-Wu Lin of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Associate Professor Chih-Sung Chuu of the Department of Physics, and Professor Richard Schaller of the Department of Chemistry at Northwestern University in the United States have jointly developed a perovskite quantum emitter with high stability and self-healing ability by a self-developed, simple, and economical procedure—spray-synthesis method. The unprecedented single-photon brightness of these quantum dots is said to break the world-record.
Lin said that in contrast with other quantum emitters, perovskite quantum dots can realize single photon emission at room temperature and have excellent optical properties, such as high quantum yield and high color purity, making them ideal for displays and high-speed computing and communications.
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Scientists at the Chemistry and Physics Institutes of the University of Campinas (UNICAMP) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in collaboration with scientists at the University of Michigan in the United States, have provides insights into the fundamental physics of perovskite quantum dots.
"We used coherent spectroscopy, which enabled us to analyze separately the behavior of the electrons in each nanomaterial in an ensemble of tens of billions of nanomaterials. The study is groundbreaking insofar as it combines a relatively new class of nanomaterials - perovskite - with an entirely novel detection technique," Lázaro Padilha Junior, principal investigator for the project on the Brazilian side, explained.
An international research team has developed a flexible quantum dot solar cell based on all-inorganic cesium-lead iodide (CsPbI3) perovskite.
The researchers built the cell by integrating quantum dots (QDs) with high surface areas into a thin hybrid interfacial architecture (HIA) and by adding phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), which is known as one of the best-performing electron acceptors commonly used in organic photovoltaic devices, into the CsPbI3 quantum dot layer.