What are perovskites?

Perovskite is a calcium titanium oxide mineral, with the chemical formula CaTiO3, discovered in the Ural Mountains of Russia by Gustav Rose in 1839 and named after Russian mineralogist Lev Perovski (1792–1856).

perovskite image

 

Perovskites are a class of materials with a similar structure that are easily synthesized and relatively low-cost. Perovskites are considered the future of solar cells and are also predicted to play a significant role in next-gen electric vehicle batteries, displays, sensors, lasers and much more.

Perovskites can have an impressive collection of interesting properties including “colossal magnetoresistance” - their electrical resistance changes when they are put in a magnetic field (which can be useful for microelectronics). Some Perovskites are superconductors, which means they can conduct electricity with no resistance at all. Perovskite materials exhibit many other interesting and intriguing properties. Ferroelectricity, charge ordering, spin dependent transport, high thermopower and the interplay of structural, magnetic and transport properties are commonly observed features in this family. Perovskites therefore hold exciting opportunities for physicists, chemists and material scientists.

What are LEDs?

A light-emitting diode (LED) is an electronic component that is essentially a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction diode that emits light upon activation by a voltage applied to the leads, which makes electrons recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light is determined by the energy band gap of the chosen semiconductor.

Perovskite LEDs colloidal solution

LEDs’ advantages over incandescent light sources include lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size, and faster switching. Light-emitting diodes have become ubiquitous and are found in diverse applications in the aerospace and automotive industries, as well as in advertising, traffic signals, camera flashes and much more.

LEDs meant for general room lighting currently remain more expensive than fluorescent or incandescent sources of similar output, but are significantly more energy efficient.

What can perovskites do for LEDs?

Current high-quality LEDs are based on direct bandgap semiconductors, but making these devices is no easy task because they need to be processed at high temperatures and in vacuum, which makes them rather expensive to produce in large quantities. Perovskites that are direct-bandgap semiconductors could be real alternatives to other types of direct-bandgap materials for applications like color displays, since they are cheap and easy to make and can be easily tuned to emit light of a variety of colors.

Perovskite hybrid organic-inorganic nanorods (HUJI)

Researchers have found that organometal halide-based perovskites (a combination of lead, organics and halogens that arrange into perovskite crystal structure in the solid state) could be very suitable for making optoelectronics devices, since they can be processed in solution and do not need to be heated to high temperatures. This means that large-area films of these materials can be deposited onto a wide range of flexible or rigid substrates. The perovskites also have an optical bandgap that can be tuned in the visible to infrared regions, which makes them very promising for a range of optoelectronics applications. These materials also emit light very strongly, which makes them very suitable for making LEDs. The light emitted by the perovskites can be easily tuned, which could make them ideal for color displays and lighting, and in optical communication applications.

However, a major obstacle that perovskites will have to overcome in order to be used in LED-type devices is that electrons and holes only weakly bind in perovskite thin films. This means that excitons (electron-hole pairs) spontaneously dissociate into free carriers in the bulk recombination layer, leading to low photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE), high leakage current and low luminous efficiency. This obviously impairs perovskites’ ability to create high-performance LEDs, and for perovskite materials to make a comparable impact in light emission, it is necessary to overcome their slow radiative recombination kinetics. Simply put, researchers will have to find ways of effectively confining electrons and holes in the perovskite so that they can “recombine” to emit light. Major progress is already being made in this field, and it seems that perovskites will indeed open the door to a low-cost, color-tunable approach to LED development.

Recent work in the field of perovskite-based LEDs

In July 2016, researchers at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore have fabricated high-performance green light-emitting diodes based on colloidal organometal perovskite nanoparticles. The devices have a maximum luminous efficiency of 11.49 cd/A, a power efficiency of 7.84 lm/W and an external quantum efficiency of 3.8%. This value is said to be about 3.5 times higher than that of the best colloidal perovskite quantum-dot-based LEDs previously made.

In March 2016, researchers at the University of Toronto in Canada and ShangaiTech University in China have succeeded in using colloidal quantum dots in a high-mobility perovskite matrix to make a near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diode (LED) with a record electroluminescence power conversion efficiency of nearly 5% for this type of device. The NIR LED could find use in applications such as night vision devices, biomedical imaging, optical communications and computing.

In February 2016, researchers from the Universitat Jaume I and the Universitat de València have studied the interaction of two materials, halide perovskite and quantum dots, revealing significant potential for the development of advanced LEDs and more efficient solar cells. The researchers quantified the "exciplex state" resulting from the coupling of halide perovskites and colloidal quantum dots, both known separately for their optoelectronic properties, but when combined, these materials yield longer wavelengths than can be achieved by either material alone, plus easy tuning properties that together have the potential to introduce important changes in LED and solar technologies.

In December 2015, researchers at Pohang University in Korea are reportedly the first to develop a perovskite light emitting diode (PeLED) that could replace organic LED (OLED) and quantum dot LED (QDLED).

Organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite have much higher color-purity at a lower cost compared to organic emitters and inorganic QD emitters. However, LEDs based on perovskite had previously shown a limited luminous efficiency, mainly due to significant exciton (a complex of an electron and hole that can allow light emission when it is radiatively recombined) dissociation in perovskite layers. The research team overcame the efficiency limitations of PeLED and boosted its efficiency to a level similar to that of phosphorescent OLEDs. This increase was attributed to fine stoichiometric tuning that prevents exciton dissociation, and to nanograin engineering that reduces perovskite grain size, and concomitantly decreases exciton diffusion length. PeLED might be a game changer in the display and solid-state lighting industries, with significantly improved efficiency as well as advantages like excellent color gamut and low material cost.

In November 2015, Florida State researchers have developed a cheaper, more efficient LED, or light-emitting diode, using perovskites. The researchers spent months using synthetic chemistry to fine-tune the materials in the lab, creating a perovskite material capable of emitting a staggering 10,000 candelas per square meter when powered by 12 volts. The scientists say that such exceptional brightness owes, to a large extent, to the inherent high luminescent efficiency of this surface-treated, highly crystalline nanomaterial.

The latest perovskite LED news:

Researchers develop ballpoint pens that can write perovskite LEDs on diverse substrates

Researchers from Washington University in St. Louis and  Florida State University have developed a versatile, scalable and eco-friendly handwriting approach to draw multicolor perovskite light-emitting diodes and perovskite photodetectors on various substrates, including paper, textiles, plastics, elastomers, rubber and three-dimensional objects. 

The team's method uses common ballpoint pens filled with newly formulated inks of conductive polymers, metal nanowires and multiple perovskites for a wide range of emission colors. Just like writing with multicolored pens, writing layer-by-layer with these functional inks enables perovskite optoelectronic devices to be realized within minutes.

Read the full story Posted: Aug 12,2023

Researchers explore the effects of a molecular additive for perovskite LEDs

Researchers from Stanford University and Mississippi State University recently explored the potential of Mn2+-doped perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs) for lighting and display applications. 

By introducing a molecular additive, tris(4-fluorphenyl)phosphine oxide (TFPPO), Mn2+-doped PeLEDs achieved a peak external quantum efficiency of 14.0% and peak luminance (i.e., brightness) of 128,000 cd/m2. These high efficiencies and brightnesses suggest that Mn2+-doped PeLEDs could be implemented in lighting or display applications. However, device stability is also important to consider. The team found that introducing TFPPO compromises the stability of Mn2+-doped PeLEDs—a decrease from 37.0 to 2.54 min. By analyzing both the optoelectronic and photophysical characteristics of Mn2+-doped PeLEDs before and after device operation, the scientists reported insights into this efficiency-stability trade-off.

Read the full story Posted: Aug 05,2023

Researchers use perovskites to design LEDs that reveal rot in food before it is visible

Researchers at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) have developed new LEDs which emit light simultaneously in two different wavelength ranges, for a simpler and more comprehensive way to monitor the freshness of fruit and vegetables.

 The team explains that modifying the LEDs with perovskite materials causes them to emit in both the near-infrared range and the visible range, a significant development in the contact-free monitoring of food. Angshuman Nag and his team at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) are proposing a perovskite application in LED technology that could simplify the quality control of fresh fruit and vegetables.

Read the full story Posted: Jul 17,2023

Researchers develop perovskite LEDs with an external quantum efficiency exceeding 30%

Researchers from Xiamen University and China Jiliang University have reported ultrahigh-efficiency green PeLEDs with quantum efficiencies surpassing a milestone of 30% by regulating the charge carrier transport and near-field light distribution to reduce electron leakage and achieve a high light outcoupling efficiency of 41.82%. 

The scientists applies Ni0.9Mg0.1Ox films with a high refractive index and increased hole carrier mobility as the hole injection layer to balance the charge carrier injection and insert the polyethylene glycol layer between the hole transport layer and the perovskite emissive layer to block the electron leakage and reduce the photon loss.

Read the full story Posted: Jun 04,2023

Stanford team shows how water additives improve the efficiency of violet perovskite light-emitting diodes

Researchers from Stanford University have reported a novel way to improve the performance of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) in the violet region. The new method could represent a promising step toward cost-effective and efficient ultraviolet PeLEDs.

By engineering the crystallization process of spin-coated 2D perovskites with water, the resulting PeLEDs exhibit bright violet emission at 408 nm with an external quantum efficiency of 0.41%, a 5-fold increase over control devices. 

Read the full story Posted: Jun 02,2023

Researchers design ITO-free silicon-integrated perovskite electrochemical cell for light-emission and light-detection

Researchers from Russia's Alferov University, ITMO University, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology and China's Qingdao Innovation and Development Center have developed a novel design for a perovskite electrochemical cell for light-emission and light-detection, where the active layer consists of a composite material made of halide perovskite microcrystals, polymer support matrix, and added mobile ions.

Schematic diagrams of (a) the typical PeLED device structure, where CTL - charge transfer layer, QD - quantum dots and (b) the team's PeLEC device structure, where SWCNT - single-walled carbon nanotubes. Image from Opto-Electronic Advances.

The team explained that while halide perovskite light-emitting devices exhibit exceptional properties such as high efficiency, high color purity, and broad color gamut, their industrial integration generally suffers from the technological complexity of devices' multilayer structure alongside in-operation induced heating poor stability. Halide perovskite light-emitting electrochemical cells are a novel type of perovskite optoelectronic device that differs from the perovskite light-emitting diodes by a simple monolayered architecture. 

Read the full story Posted: May 14,2023

Perovskite-Info launches a new edition of its Perovskite for Displays Market Report

Perovskite-Info is proud to announce an update to our Perovskite for the Display Industry Market Report. This market report, brought to you by the world's leading perovskite and OLED industry experts, is a comprehensive guide to next-generation perovskite-based solutions for the display industry that enable efficient, low cost and high-quality display devices. The report is now updated to May 2023, with all the latest commercial and research activity.

Reading this report, you'll learn all about:

  • Perovskite materials and their properties
  • Perovskite applications in the display industry
  • Perovskite QDs for color conversion
  • Prominent perovskite display related research activities

The report also provides a list of perovskite display companies, datasheets and brochures of pQD film solutions, an introduction to perovskite materials and processes, an introduction to emerging display technologies and more.

Read the full story Posted: May 11,2023

Researchers fabricate full-color flexible microLEDs using perovskite QDs

Researchers from Korea's KIMM institute have fabricated full-color flexible microLED devices, using blue LEDs and perovskite quantum dot color conversion layers. The demonstrated device featured  1 mm pixel pitch LEDs (25.4 PPI) and could be bent with a radius of 5 mm without being damaged.

Flexible perovskite QD microLED array (KIMM)

The researchers used a perovskite-QD and siloxane composite using ligand exchanged PQD with silane composite followed by surface activation by an addition of halide-anion containing salt. Due to this surface activation, the researchers say that it was possible to construct the PQD surface with a silane ligand using a non-polar organic solvent that does not damage the PQD. As a result, the ligand-exchanged PQD with a silane compound exhibited high dispersibility in the siloxane matrix and excellent atmospheric stability.

Read the full story Posted: Mar 28,2023

Researchers report molecular engineering strategy for efficient and stable deep-red perovskite LEDs

Researchers from Purdue University, Florida State University, University of Kentucky,  Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of Houston, Rice University, China's Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences) and Taiwan's National Cheng Kung University have found that LEDs based on halide perovskites can produce more vivid, colorful and brighter images. The recent research presents extremely efficient perovskite LED devices in the red color region.

Perovskite materials often tend to be less stable and can degrade quickly. Further, device efficiency has not been fully optimized to compete with conventional LEDs. “Our work aims to resolve these critical issues,” said Purdue's Letian Dou, who conceived the idea, supervised the project and provided funding support.

Read the full story Posted: Feb 19,2023

Researchers improve perovskite-based LEDs using self-assembled molecules

Researchers from the Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia-The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (ICIQ-BIST), Centre Tecnològic de Catalunya EURECAT, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), ICREA and Universitat Rovira i Virgili have reported the application of two carbazole-based self-assembled molecules (SAMs) as hole injecting materials in perovskite-based LEDs.

Their structures differ in one phenyl ring in the bridge; however, the extra ring provides more stability to the devices, even surpassing the one obtained with the widely used polymer PTAA. In addition, due to the structural and electronic characteristics of the SAMs, the efficiency of the devices is also increased.

Read the full story Posted: Feb 17,2023