Perovskites are materials that share a crystal structure similar to the mineral called perovskite, which consists of calcium titanium oxide (CaTiO3).
Depending on which atoms/molecules are used in the structure, perovskites can possess an impressive array of interesting properties including superconductivity, ferroelectricity, charge ordering, spin dependent transport and much more. Perovskites therefore hold exciting opportunities for physicists, chemists and material scientists.
Quantum dots (QDs), sometimes referred to as semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs), are miniscule particles of a semiconducting material with diameters in the range of 2-10 nanometers (10-50 atoms). Quantum dots have properties labeled as intermediate between bulk semiconductors and discrete atoms or molecules. Their optoelectronic properties change as a function of both size and shape. QDs demonstrate optical and electronic properties different from those of larger particles. In fact, QDs tend to exhibit quantum size effects in their optical and electronic properties, like tunable and efficient photoluminescence (PL), with narrow emission and photochemical stability. This is why QDs have been incorporated as active elements in a wide variety of devices and applications, some of which are already commercially available, such as QD-based displays.
Perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) are a class of quantum dots based on perovskite materials. While these are relatively new, they have already been shown to have properties matching or surpassing those of the metal chalcogenide QDs: they are more tolerant to defects and have excellent photoluminescence quantum yields and high colour purity. Such attractive properties are extremely suited for electronic and optoelectronic applications and so perovskite quantum dots have significant potential for real world applications, some of which are already emerging, including LED displays and quantum dot solar cells.
The latest Perovskite QD news:
An international research team has developed a flexible quantum dot solar cell based on all-inorganic cesium-lead iodide (CsPbI3) perovskite.
The researchers built the cell by integrating quantum dots (QDs) with high surface areas into a thin hybrid interfacial architecture (HIA) and by adding phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), which is known as one of the best-performing electron acceptors commonly used in organic photovoltaic devices, into the CsPbI3 quantum dot layer.
Perovskite-Info has talked with the company's management, which updated us that it recently concluded a successful pilot with TCL. TCL, in collaboration with Zhijing Nanotech, produced 500 75-inch QD-enhanced LCD TVs (TCL 4K 75M10) with Zhijing's PQDF films. The company reports that the TVs featured a wide color gamut, 147% BT709 - which is higher than most QD TV's on the market, and higher than TCL's original 75M10 TVs.
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UK-based Quantum Solutions published this video below that demonstrates its latest perovskite QD film for LCD color conversion:
Quantum Solutions now offers its QDot SharpGreen Perovskite QDs Film, which is a polymer composite with embedded QDot SharpGreen Perovskite QDs. It is designed to be used in LCD backlighting units and sensor devices for X-rays and UV lights. The material has green emission 520-535 nm (depending on the concentration), high PLQY (up to 80-100 %) and narrow FWHM (< 20-22 nm). The company says that the films retain > 70-80 % of initial photoluminescence within 1000 hours of exposing by heat (85 °C and blue light 10 mW/cm2 exposure) and high relative humidity (90 % RH at 60 °C).
An exciting application for perovskite QDs, which is likely to be the first commercial adoption of pQDs, is for the display market - films that convert blue LED LCD backlight to green.
Switzerland-based nanomaterial developer Avantama told us that the company passed the OEM qualification with its green pQD film, together with a KSF phosphor solution on the LED chip. Avantama expects the first commercial LCD display to adopt this solution to hit the market in 2021.