Researchers at Northwestern University have developed a new method for synthesizing halide perovskite nanocrystals.
'This method could be used to create optical displays with 'true' reds, greens, and blues that completely outshine current LEDs,' said Northwestern's Chad A. Mirkin. 'From color purity to pixel density, these nano-LEDs point toward a potentially dramatic improvement over current LEDs.'
To date, the team said, there have been two major hurdles to realizing the potential of halide perovskites. It has been difficult to miniaturize them for integration into small optical and electronic devices, and the relationship between their dimensions and their physical/chemical properties has not been well understood, due to the difficulty of synthesizing halide perovskite nanocrystals in defined shapes and sizes.
To overcome these obstacles, the researchers used a technique called polymer pen lithography. Invented by Chad Mirkin (who led this research) and coworkers in 2008, polymer pen lithography uses an array of thousands or even millions of pyramidal tips to 'print' molecules on a targeted surface, in sizes and patterns specified by the user.
'The precision and versatility of polymer pen lithography coupled to novel precursor 'inks' have greatly expanded the ability to rapidly test, compare, and catalog the properties of compositionally multiplexed nanocrystals,' the team said. 'What we've learned here could pave the way for a wide range of light-emitting devices and devices that harvest light for power.'
The research team identified a special liquid-organic 'ink' to use as a solvent when depositing the perovskite nanocrystals on the surface. The ink evaporated within seconds, leaving the nanocrystals behind to form structures and grow.
As evidence of their control over the size and location of individual nanocrystals, the researchers printed patterns of nanocrystals spelling out the letters 'IIN' in the actual logo font of the International Institute for Nanotechnology. Each 'IIN' was 100 micrometers wide; the letters were composed of nanocrystal 'dots' as small as 50 nanometers in size.
This method made it possible to create a single-nanocrystal solar cell, capable of efficiently capturing light and translating it into energy. As miniaturized, efficient power sources that could be integrated into a microchip, nanocrystal solar cells could reduce the bulk of wearable devices like activity trackers or virtual reality headsets. These nanocrystals could also serve as sensors that activate nano-electronic devices upon detecting the presence of light.
The research also revealed new information about the way that a nanocrystal's size can affect the light it emits, which made it possible to create RGB (red/green/blue) pixel arrays.
Mirkin's laboratory is now using this data to develop nanocrystal LEDs, which could significantly improve the quality of televisions, smartphones, and other optical displays. Where current LEDs use comparatively bulky microcrystals to generate color, nanocrystal-based LEDs could reach a far greater pixel density due to their nanoscale size, while achieving much higher color purity and intensity. Mirkin anticipates that these displays would last longer as well.